Учебно-методическое пособие иностранный язык (английский)


НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие иностранный язык (английский)
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ТипУчебно-методическое пособие
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Mental health


Цель – формирование представлений студентов опсихическом здоровье, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.


Clinical psychology is the application of psychology to the understanding, treatment, and assessment of psychopathology, behavioral or mental health issues. It has traditionally been associated with counseling and psychotherapy, although modern clinical psychology may take an eclectic approach, including a number of therapeutic approaches. Typically, although working with many of the same clients as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists do not prescribe psychiatric drugs. Some clinical psychologists may focus on the clinical management of patients with brain injury. This area is known as clinical neuropsychology.

In recent years and particularly in the United States, a major split has been developing between academic research psychologists in universities and some branches of clinical psychology. Many academic psychologists believe that these clinicians use therapies based on discredited theories and unsupported by empirical evidence of their effectiveness. From the other side, these clinicians believe that the academics are ignoring their experience in dealing with actual patients. The disagreement has resulted in the formation of the American Psychological Society by the research psychologists as a new body distinct from the American Psychological Association.

Whereas clinical psychology focuses on mental health and neurological illness, health psychology is concerned with the psychology of a much wider range of health-related behavior including healthy eating, the doctor-patient relationship, a patient's understanding of health information, and beliefs about illness. Health psychologists may be involved in public health campaigns, examining the impact of illness or health policy on quality of life or in research into the psychological impact of health and social care.

The majority of work performed by clinical psychologists tends to be done inside a CBT (Cognitive-behaviorial therapy) framework. CBT is an umbrella term that refers to a number of therapies which focus on changing cognitions, rather than changing behaviour or discovering the unconscious causes of psychopatholgy. The two most famous CBT therapies are Aaron T. Beck's cognitive therapy and Albert Ellis's rational emotive behaviour therapy (with cognitive therapy being, by far, the most extensively studies therapy in contemporary clinical psychology).

Certain new therapies have been met with mixed results. Holding therapy advocates holding onto a person--often a child--until they stop resisting. This is intended as a sort of "forced attachment", with the intent of creating a bond and making the "holdee" more at ease with attachment. Opponents of this therapy claim this technique is little different from forms of punishment, forcing someone to do something against their will.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions on the text:
  1. ^

    What does clinical psychology focus on?

  2. Why has the disagreement been developing between academic research psychologists in universities and some branches of clinical psychology?

  3. What is health psychology concerned with?

  4. What is CBT?


II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).
^

What do you know about clinical psychology?



III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Clinical psychology; assessment psychopathology; brain injury; to force; punishment; mental health; to be associated with; clinical neuropsychology; in recent years; to be concerned with; to be involved in; the majority of.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Назначать (лекарство); образование; включать; особенно; сосредоточивать, раскол, эмпирический; с другой стороны, игнорировать, разногласие, иметь результатом, тогда как, болезнь, влияние.
V. Give the summary of the text.

VI. Read the text and then translate it in writing.
^

Relationships. Seperation & divorce. Sex.


For married men, research has shown that trouble in a marriage is the most common single problem connected with depression. Men can’t cope with disagreements as well as women. Arguments actually make men feel very physically uncomfortable. So, they try to avoid arguments or difficult discussions. This often leads to the situation where a man's partner will want to talk about a problem, but he will not and will do his best to avoid talking about it. The partner feels that they are being ignored and tries to talk about it more, which makes him feel he is being nagged. So, he withdraws even more, which makes his partner feel even more that they are being ignored . . . and so on. This vicious circle can quite easily destroy a relationship.

Men have traditionally seen themselves as being the leaders in their family lives. However, the process of separation and divorce is most often started by women. Of all men, those who are divorced are most likely to kill themselves, probably because depression is more common and more severe in this group. This may be because, as well as losing their main relationship, they often lose touch with their children, may have to move to live in a different place, and often find themselves hard-up for money. These are stressful events in themselves, quite apart from the stress of the break-up, and are likely to bring on depression.

Depressed men feel less good about their bodies and less sexy than when they're not depressed. Many just go off sex completely. Several recent studies suggest that, in spite of this, men who are depressed have intercourse just as often, but they don't feel as satisfied as usual. A few depressed men actually report increased sexual drive and intercourse, possibly as a way of trying to make themselves feel better. Another problem may be that some anti-depressant drugs will also reduce sex-drive in a small number of men who take them.

HOWEVER, the good news is that, as the depression improves, so will your sexual desire, performance and satisfaction.

It's worth remembering that it can happen the other way round. Impotence (difficulty in getting or keeping an erection) can bring about depression. Again, this is a problem for which it is usually possible to find effective help.


^ Unit 20

Depression

Цель – формирование представлений студентов о депрессии, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.
Depression is an illness that affects both men and women. But people working in mental health services see far fewer men with depression than women with depression. It seems likely that men suffer from depression just as often as women, but that they are less likely to ask for help. This leaflet gives some basic facts about depression in general - and how it affects men in particular.
^

Why is it important?


Depression causes a huge amount of suffering. It is a major reason for people taking time off sick from their work. Many people who kill themselves have been depressed - it is a potentially fatal disorder. However, it is easily treatable and best treated as early as possible. Men need to know what it is and how to get effective help.
^

What's the difference between just feeling miserable and being depressed?


Everybody has times in their lives when they feel down or depressed. This is usually for a good reason and does not last for a long time or take over your life. However, if these feelings go on for a long time, or become very severe, you may find yourself stuck, utterly unable to get out of the depression. This is what doctors call a depressive illness. Some people suffer from manic depression (also called Bipolar Affective Disorder). They have periods of bad depression, but also times of great elation and overactivity. These can be just as harmful as the periods of depression.
^

What are the signs and symptoms?


If you are depressed, you will probably have several of these signs and symptoms:

Psychological Symptoms:

  • Unhappy, miserable or depressed. These feelings just won't go away. These feelings will often be worse at a particular time of day, often first thing in the morning.

  • Unable to enjoy anything

  • Unable to concentrate properly

  • Guilty about things that have nothing to do with you

Physical Symptoms:

  • Unable to get to sleep, waking early and during the night

  • Uninterested in sex

  • Unable to eat

  • Losing weight

Other people may notice that:

  • You are performing less well at work

  • You seem unusually quiet, unable to talk about things

  • You're worrying about things more than usual

  • You're more irritable than usual

  • You're complaining more about vague physical problems


EXERCISES
^ I. Answer the following questions on the text:

1. What is depression?

2. Who oftener suffers from depression men or women?

3. Why is it important to treat depression?

4. What are the symptoms of depression?

II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).

How can a person understand that he is depressed?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Depression; to worry about; to lose weight; to feel down; a depressive illness; to be easily treatable; to get effective help; to suffer from depression.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Поражать (о болезни); страдать от; быть причиной, поддающийся излечению; как можно раньше; просить о помощи; потенциально; приподнятое настроение; сверхактивность.
V. Give the summary of the text.

VI. Read the text and then translate it in writing.
^

Why is depression different for men?


The way that men think about themselves can be quite unhelpful. Compared with women, they tend to be far more concerned with being competitive, powerful and successful. Most men don't like to admit that they feel fragile or vulnerable, and so are less likely to talk about their feelings with their friends, loved ones or their doctors. This may be the reason that they often don't ask for help when they become depressed. Men tend to feel that they should rely only on themselves and that it is somehow weak to have to depend on someone else, even for a short time.

This traditional view of how men should be - always tough and self-reliant - is also held by some women. Some men find that owning up to their depression actually results in their partner rejecting them because of this. Even professionals sometimes share this view, and may not diagnose depression in men when they should.
^

How do men cope?


Instead of talking about how they feel, men may try to make themselves feel better by using alcohol or drugs. This will usually make things worse in the long run. Their work will suffer and alcohol often leads to irresponsible, unpleasant or dangerous behaviour. Men also tend to give their work a higher priority than their home life, which produces conflicts with their wives or partners. All of these things have been shown to make depression more likely.
Unit 21
^

What is a social phobia?


Цель – формирование представлений студентов о социальной фобии, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.
A phobia is basically a fear. We all have fears about things such as heights and spiders but, for most of us, they do not interfere with the way we lead our lives. These fears are only called phobias when they interfere with things we would otherwise enjoy or do easily.

Many of us get worried before meeting new people, but we find that once we are with them, we can cope and even enjoy the situation. However, some of us become very anxious about these situations. At best, we cannot enjoy them and, at worst, we may have to avoid them altogether. This is what doctors and psychologists call social phobia.

This leaflet describes what it feels like to have a social phobia, how you can help yourself, and what other kinds of help are available.

There are two main sorts of social phobia.

If you suffer with a general social phobia, you will tend to worry about becoming the centre of attention anywhere you find yourself with other people. You will find yourself worrying that everybody is looking at you and noticing what you are doing. You may fear being introduced to other people and may even worry about eating or drinking in public. It may be difficult for you to go into shops or restaurants. You may feel so embarrassed about undressing in public that you can't face going to the beach. It may also be difficult for you to confront your boss or colleagues, even when you really ought to.

Parties are likely to be particularly difficult. Many of us will hesitate slightly before going into a room full of people. If you have a social phobia, you may tend to hover around the entrance or outer rooms - some people believe they are claustrophobic because of these feelings. When you finally get into the room with other people, it may feel as though everybody is looking at you. It can be tempting to use alcohol to help yourself cope, starting to drink before going to a pub or party, so that you can loosen up and relax enough to actually enjoy it.

This is a particular phobia that affects people who have to be the centre of attention as part of their way of life. It may affect anybody who has to perform or speak in front of other people. Salesmen, actors, musicians, teachers, or union representatives may all suffer from it. In spite of this, it doesn't seem to cause problems for them in ordinary social situations. If you do suffer from social phobia, you may find that you can mix and socialize with other people without any problems. However, when you have to get up and talk or perform in front of others, you become very anxious, perhaps stammering or even 'drying up' completely. It can affect even people who are experienced at speaking in public and do it regularly. At its worst, it can make it impossible for the sufferer to speak in public at all, even to ask a question.

If you have a social phobia you will probably find yourself worrying a lot about making a fool of yourself in front of other people, and you will feel very anxious before going into any of the social situations that worry you. You may find yourself going through, in great detail, all the embarrassing things that could happen to you. When you are actually with people, you will feel even more anxious, and may be unable to say, or do, what you want. In a way, it is a self-fulfilling prophecy. You worry so much about looking worried that you actually do look worried. Your worry is your worst enemy.

Once it is all over, you find yourself worrying about how you handled the situation. You may go over, again and again, how you might have behaved or talked differently.

People experiencing both of these types of social phobia have many of the same physical symptoms. You may get a very dry mouth, sweat a lot, experience palpitations (the feeling that the heart is beating very fast and / or irregularly) and want to pass water or open your bowels. Other people may be able to see some of the signs of this anxiety, such as blushing, stammering, shaking and trembling. Sometimes, you may breathe too fast, which can give you feelings of numbness or pins and needles in the fingers and toes. This can, in itself, be quite alarming and can make the anxiety even worse.
EXERCISES
^ I. Answer the following questions on the text:

1. What is a phobia?

2. What is a social phobia?

3. What are the main sorts of phobia?

4. What is a general social phobia? Give examples.

5. What is a particular phobia? Give examples.

6. What happens to a person who has a social phobia?
^ II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).

What symptoms do people experiencing a social phobia have? What do you think such people should do to cope with it?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

A phobia; to interfere with; to lead a life; a social phobia; the center of attention; to be introduced to; to worry about; feel embarrassed; to hesitate; to hover around; to cause problems; to socialize with; a room full of people; to mix with other people; а social phobia; to worry a lot; social situations; embarrassing things; to look worried; to handle the situation; to behave; to experience palpitations; to breathe; to be quite alarming.

^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Избегать; страдать от; влиять; несмотря на; беспокоящийся; обращать внимание; бояться; слушаться; противостоять; помогать; образ жизни; становиться более разговорчивым; справиться, возможно; происходить (с кем-л.); беспокоящийся; беспокойство; испытывать; запинаться; краснеть; поставить себя в глупое положение; не быть в состоянии; дрожать.
V. Give the summary of the text.
VI. Read the text and then translate it in writing.
^

Pregnancy & children. Unemployment & retirement.


We have known for many years that some mothers feel severely depressed after having a child. It is only recently that we have realised that more than 1 in 10 fathers also suffer psychological problems during this time. This shouldn't really be surprising. We know that major events in people's lives, even good ones like moving house, can bring about a period of depression. And this particular event changes your life more than any other. Suddenly, you have to spend much more of your time looking after your partner, and the children.

On an intimate level, new mothers tend to be less interested in sex for a number of months. Simple tiredness is the main problem, although you may take it personally and feel that you are being rejected. You may have to adjust, perhaps for the first time, to taking second place in your partner's affections. You will also probably find that you have to spend less time at work. Paternity leave is still quite unusual in the UK.

New fathers are more likely to become depressed if their partner is depressed, if they aren't getting on with their partner, or if they are unemployed. This isn't important just from the father's point of view. It will affect the mother and may have an important impact on how the baby grows and develops in the first few months.

Leaving work, for any reason, can be stressful. Recent work has shown that up to 1 in 7 men who become unemployed will develop a depressive illness in the next 6 months. This is much more than would be expected in employed men. In fact, after relationship difficulties, unemployment is the most likely thing to push a man into a bad depression. This isn't surprising, as work is often the main thing that gives a man his sense of worth and self-esteem. You may lose symbols of your success, such as the company car. You may have to adjust to looking after the home and children, while your wife or partner becomes the bread-winner. From a position of being in control, you may face a future over which you have little control, especially if it takes a long time to find another job.

It is more likely to happen if you are shy, if you don't have a close relationship or if you don't manage to find another job. Of course, if you get depressed, you may well find it harder to get another job, which may make your depression worse.

Retiring from paid employment can be difficult for many men, especially if their partner continues to work. It may take some time to get used to losing the structure of your day and contact with workmates.

Unit 22
^

Psychological and Drug Treatments


Цель – формирование представлений студентов о психологическом и медикаментозном лечении, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.


^ Social Skills Training: This helps to make people feel more relaxed and confident in company. It does this by teaching some of the simple social skills that we tend to take for granted, like how to start a conversation with a stranger. There is a lot of practice with other people and so-called 'feedback' - people watch themselves practicing on video to get an idea of what they are doing and how they appear to other people.

Exposure Therapy: This involves helping a person to relax while in the situation that they find frightening. It can be done in stages, each time making the situation a little more intense and frightening. Another way is called 'flooding'. The patient is first taught how to relax in a frightening situation and is then put into a situation that would normally worry them, such as a crowded room. They are then helped to relax and wait for their anxiety to disappear, which it does after a while.

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: We can often make ourselves anxious by the way that we think about things. This treatment helps people change the way that they think about themselves and other people. Take the situation when a conversation dries up. Someone with a social phobia will tend to think that it is their fault, and so will start to feel anxious. In Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, the therapist will remind them that it is just as likely that the other person has run out of things to say, a much more realistic and less worrying way of thinking about the situation.
^

Drug treatments


Beta-Blockers: These drugs are usually used to treat high blood pressure. In low doses, they control the physical shaking of anxiety - which can be a symptom of the social phobia - and can be taken shortly before meeting people or before speaking in public.

Anti-depressants: A particular type, the so-called 'Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors' (MAOIs), have been found to help, and sometimes to stop the anxiety and panics, although it often takes a few weeks for the treatment to work. There are drawbacks though. They tend to lower the blood pressure, which can make people feel faint. Some foods, such as cheese and yeast extract, may produce dangerous reactions with these drugs, so people using MAOIs have to follow a special diet which leaves out these foods. Some cough medicines that can be bought at the chemist can produce similar reactions to these foods.

There are now some new MAOI drugs called RIMAs (Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine oxidase - A). These don't seem to produce the above reactions and so the user can eat what he or she likes. Other types of traditional anti-depressants don't seem to work very well in social phobia.

More recently developed anti-depressants (known as SSRIs - Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) have been found to be helpful in social phobia, but may sometimes cause headaches and dizziness in the first few weeks. You can eat what you like if you are taking these drugs.

Tranquillisers: Drugs like Valium were used in the past to treat all sorts of anxiety. We now know that they are addictive and that they do not help in the long run. They should usually not be used to treat people with a social phobia.

EXERCISES
^ I. Answer the following questions on the text:

1. What is social skills training?

2. What is exposure therapy?

3. What are Beta-Blockers usually used for?

4. What do Beta-Blockers control in low doses?

5. When can Beta-Blockers be taken?

6. What do you know about Anti-depressants?

7. What are the drawbacks of Anti-depressants?

8. Can tranquillizers be used to treat people with a social phobia?
^ II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).

What can you say about cognitive behavioral therapy?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

To feel more relaxed and confident; social skills; to start a conversation; to get an idea; to appear to; to relax; exposure therapy; to feel anxious; cognitive behavioral therapy, beta-Blockers; to be used to; in low doses; a social phobia; anti-depressants; the blood pressure; to produce dangerous reactions; to leave out; to cause headaches; dizziness; anxiety.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Считать само собой разумеющимся; обратная связь; переполненная комната; истощить свой запас; терапевт; напоминать; думать о чем-л.; иссякнуть; напряженная ситуация, лечить высокое кровяное давление; контролировать; выступать публично; лечение; недостаток; чувствовать дурноту; соблюдать специальную диету; антидепрессант; в конце концов.
V. Give the summary of the text.

VI. Read the text and then translate it in writing.
^

Suicide. Violence.


Men are around 3 times more likely to kill themselves than women. Suicide is commonest amongst men who are separated, widowed or divorced and is more likely if someone is a heavy drinker. Over the last few years men have become more likely to kill themselves, particularly those aged between 16 and 24 years and those between 39 and 54 years. We don't yet know why this should be so, but it is very worrying.

We do know that 2 out of 3 people who kill themselves have seen their GP in the previous 4 weeks and nearly 1 in every 2 will have done so in the week before they kill themselves. We also know that about 2 out of 3 people who kill themselves will have talked about it to friends or family.

Asking if someone is feeling this way will not put the idea into his head or make it more likely that he will kill himself. So, although some men may not be very good at talking about how they are feeling, it is important to ask if you have any suspicion - and to take such ideas seriously. For a man who feels suicidal, there is nothing more demoralising than to feel that others do not take him seriously. He will often have taken some time to pluck up the courage to tell anybody about it. If you do find yourself feeling so bad that you have thought about suicide, it can be a great relief to tell someone.

Some studies have shown that men who commit violent crimes are more likely to get depressed than men who don't. However, we don't know if the depression makes their violence more likely, or if it's just the way they lead their lives.

Unit 23
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