Учебно-методическое пособие иностранный язык (английский)


НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие иностранный язык (английский)
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Text

Man's whole life consists in solving acute and urgent tasks and prob­lems. The emergence of such problems and unexpected difficulties is elo­quent proof that surrounding world contains many unknown, strange and hidden things and phenomena. They constantly exercise man's mind and challenge him to penetrate deeper and deeper into the mysteries of nature, and discover ever new processes, properties and relations between people and things. Thinking is born of man's need to understand new, unknown properties of objects he constantly meets with in the course of his life. His old store of knowledge proves insufficient. The Universe is infinite, just as the process of its cognition. Thinking is always oriented towards the new, the unknown. While thinking, every individual makes discoveries, be they ever so small and only for himself.

Inseparable from speech, thinking is socially-conditioned mental process of search for and discovery of the essentially new. Being capable of mediated and generalized reflection of reality with the help of analysis and synthesis, thought derives from practical activity and, evolving from sensuous knowledge, extends for beyond its bounds.

Cognitive activity starting from sensations and perceptions passes on to thinking. Even the most sophisticated thinking is never divorced from sensuous knowledge, i.e. from sensations, perceptions and representations. Through sen­sations and perceptions, thinking is directly linked to the outer world and is its reflection. The correctness (adequacy) of this reflection is continually checked by practice, during practical transformation of nature and society.

The process of thinking based on sensations, perceptions and representa­tions oversteps the limits of sensuous knowledge, i.e. the individual begins to cognize such phenomena of the outer world, their properties and relations which arc not given him in perceptions directly and therefore are not directly observ­able. For instance, one of the most complex problems of contemporary physics is the development of a theory of elementary particles. These particles, however cannot be observed even with the help of the most powerful modern micro­scope. In other words, they do not lend themselves to direct observation, they can only be contemplated mentally.

Thinking is interrelated not only with sensuous knowledge, but also with language, speech. This is where we have one of the basic distinctions between the human and animal psyche. The elementary, primitive thinking of animals is only concerned with immediately perceivable objects, those directly before the eyes of the animal.

Special observations during psychological experiments show that some pupils and even adults find it difficult to solve a problem without thinking aloud. And individual explaining something to other people and formulating his ideas makes them clearer to himself. The formulation of thoughts in the speech pro­cess is crucial for their formation. An important role in this process also belongs to the so-called inner speech: solving a problem, the individual confers, as it were, only with himself, thinking not out loud, but silently.
EXERCISES


  1. Answer the following questions on the text.

  1. What kind of problems do the individual have to solve?

  2. What does surrounding world contain?

  3. How does man's mind exercise?

  4. Why do people think?

  1. The Universe is infinite, just as the process of its cognition, isn't it?

  2. What way do the most of people make discoveries?

  3. What is thinking directly linked to?

  4. How is the correctness of reflection outer world checked by?

  5. What example of overstepping the limits of sensuous knowledge is described in the text?

10. Why do people think aloud?
II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).

What kind of problems do you have to solve?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Solve acute and urgent tasks; eloquent proof; hidden things; penetrate deeper and deeper; unknown properties of objects; old store of knowledge; make dis­covery; socially-conditioned mental process of search; mediated and general­ized reflection of reality; cognitive activity; be directly linked to; overstep the limits of sensuous knowledge; contemporary physics; elementary particles; be crucial for; inner speech, think aloud or silently.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Решать острые и злободневные проблемы; окружающий мир; неожиданные трудности; красноречивое доказательство; тренировать человеческий ум; неизвестные свойства объектов; старый багаж знаний; вселенная бесконечна; делать открытия; социально-обусловленный мыслительный процесс; опосредованное и обобщенное отражение действительности; познавательная активность (деятельность); быть непосредственно связанным; выходить за рамки чувственного восприятия; элементарные частицы; внутренняя речь; думать вслух или про себя.
^ V. Complete the sentences.

  1. Man's whole life consists....

  2. Unexpected difficulties and problems exercise....

  3. Thinking is born of man's need to....

  4. The Universe is infinite, just as....

  5. While thinking, every individual makes....

  6. Cognitive activity starting from....

  7. Thinking is directly linked to....

  8. One of the basic distinctions between the human and animal psyche is....

9. Some pupils and even adults cannot solve their problems... .

10. The so-called inner speech is....
^ VI. Make up sentences from the following words and word combinations.

  1. Consists in; tasks and problems; solving; man's whole life; in; acute and urgent.

  2. Is born; to understand; thinking; of; new; properties of objects; man's need; objects; unknown.

  1. Cognition; is infinite; just as; the Universe; its; the process of.

  2. Discoveries; every; while thinking; makes; individual.

  1. Thinking; starting; sensations and perceptions; cognitive activity; from; to; passes on.

  1. The outer world; thinking; and; is directly linked to; is; its reflection.

  2. Thinking; oversteps; the process; the limits of; sensuous knowledge; of.

  1. The; thinking of; is only concerned with; primitive; animals; perceivable objects; immediately.

  1. Cannot; solve their problems; thinking about; some people; without.



VII. Speak out about thinking as a process of cognition.
VIII. Look through the passages from A to E which contain examples of inadequate ways of thinking and match them with the titles.

^ Social Pressure. Drawing Wrong Conclusions. Inability to Use Symbols. Rigid Thinking. Magical Thinking.

A. This kind of a thinking pattern occurs when a solution (решение) to a problem is thought about in an either or manner. Statements such as "You either can do it my way or not at all" and "There are only two possible solutions to this question" reflect such a pattern. People who come from background (социальная Среда) where everything is evaluated in terms of right or wrong, black or white, good or bad usually have difficulties in problem solving. As a result they fail to evaluate the many alternatives present in any complex problem.

B. Many people come from backgrounds where thinking occured in a mystical way. The reasons for a certain difficulty were attributed to the position of the stars or the phases of the Moon. The fact that a person is continually plagued (мучиться) with problems results from his being born on a certain day or at a particular hour. There are those who have been lead to believe that only certain people can help you solve a problem, those gifted (одаренные) which certain magic powers (силы).

C. Some people have never been given opportunity to think long enough about a situation to reach an accurate conclusion. Their analysis of situation is incomplete; they do not collect the necessary information. Some parent demand (требовать) of their children that they make their decision immediately. They indirectly teach the child not to tolerate (терпеть) an indecisive moment or ambiguous (двусмысленный) situation. Thus the child never gets any practice in finding out what the factors are in making a decision.

D. Some families encourage (поощрять) their children to think like everyone else or to accept what they are told and what they are given to read without question. After their early years those so trained (наученные таким образом) tend to accept ideas automatically from their peer (ровесники) group and from political groups.

E. People who are familiar with and who can manipulate signs (знак) are likely to think more effectively. One of the reasons that school is such a necessary part of everyone's experience is that in school we learn how to use words and to think about ideas and concepts. Students often feel that they are learning little from school because they forget many of the specific facts to which they are exposed. However a more important goal of education involves the learning of tools (средства) and techniques (these would include the use of words and concepts) through which one can learn to think more effectively in order to solve problems later in life.

^ Unit 14

Motivation

Цель – формирование представлений студентов о мотивации, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.
^ Key words


motives

мотив, повод, побуждение

motivation

мотивация, целенаправленность

setting

установка, пуск в ход

satisfy

удовлетворять

need

потребность, побуждающий стимул

tension

напряжение

incorporate

объединять, включать

esteem

уважение

tend

иметь склонность

day-to-day

ежедневный

long term

долгосрочный

in all probability

по всей вероятности

to exert oneself

стараться, лезть из кожи вон


Text

In the human's earlier life, motivation is an integral component of learning and a critical problem in educational settings.

Unsatisfied needs, with the accompanying tensions, arouse and direct activity toward goals which the individual perceives as satisfying those needs. A classification scheme which incorporates most human needs includes: physio­logical needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, self-actu­alization needs, the need to explore, and the need to achieve.

All children appear to need the approval of parents, teachers and equals; to be loved; to achieve some success; to experience stability of social relation­ships; to have some attention paid to them; to be able to manipulate things and ideas; and to think well of themselves. In addition there are certain other sources of motivation more directly due to opportunity and environment, such as the day-to-day interests of children and their long-term interests and hobbies. These are very powerful motives at times. Hence we suggest:



  1. children will work harder at tasks when they feel the result is important to them, or that in some way the task measures their real worth as persons;

  2. children tend to exert themselves more when a standard of attainment has been set. In all probability, the child who cannot reach the standard feels a reduction in his own sense of worth, and feels that he is losing the approval of his teachers and equals. It is important that the target be set within the capacity of the children, providing their work hard;

  3. moderate competition among children seems generally to increase their output of work;

  4. under the influence of basic motives and opportunities, experience and training, pupils develop strong interests (at certain ages) in, say, stamp collecting-, dramatics, athletics and flying. These interests can act as very powerful motives. Motivation has been dealt with before abilities, for the latter may be of little use if the child is poorly motivated.


EXERCISES
^ I. Answer the following questions on the text.

  1. When is motivation an integral component of learning?

  2. What thing arouses and directs the activity of children toward goals?

  3. What are human needs?

  4. What are the needs of all children?

  1. Do children understand their own real worth as persons? Why must the target be set within the capacity of the children?

  2. May abilities be of little use if the child is poorly motivated?

  3. Is it right to say that motives are internal tensional states capable of utilizing energy to reduce the tension?


^ II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion. (no less that 10 sentences).

What motivate you to do something?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Integral component of learning; educational settings; unsatisfied needs; physiological needs; safety needs; esteem needs; the need to achieve; need the approval of parents; experience stability of social relationships; a standard of attainment; moderate competition; output of work; powerful motives
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text.

Неотъемлемый компонент учения; обстановка, в которой осуществля­ется обучение; неудовлетворенные потребности; схема классификации; физиологические потребности; потребности в безопасности; потребности в уважении; потребности в самоактуализации; потребности в исследова­нии; потребность в успехе; одобрение родителей; достигать успеха; завое­вывать внимание; высоко себя оценивать; ежедневные интересы детей; иметь склонность лезть из кожи вон; образец (стандарт) достижения; терять одобрение учителей; умеренное соперничество; мощные мотивы.
^ V. Complete the sentences.

  1. Motivation is an integral component of learning and....

  2. A classification scheme of human needs includes....

  3. All children appear to need....

  4. There are other sources of motivation such as....

  5. Children will work harder at tasks if....

  6. The child who cannot reach the standard... .

  7. Moderate competition increases....

  8. Powerful motives are....


^ VI. Make up sentences from the following words and word combinations.

  1. A critical problem; is; an integral component of learning; motivation; educational settings; and; in.

  2. Human needs; a classification scheme; includes; most.

  3. Need; all children; parents, teachers and equals; the approval of.

  4. Try; to manipulate; to be able; children; to think well of themselves; and; things and ideas.

  5. The result; at tasks; when; to them; important; will work harder; children; if; is.

  6. Output of work; among children; their; moderate competition; increases.

  7. Strong interests; powerful motives; develop; which; pupils; are.


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