Учебно-методическое пособие иностранный язык (английский)


НазваниеУчебно-методическое пособие иностранный язык (английский)
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What Is Psychology


Цель – формирование представлений студентов о психологии как прикладной дисциплине, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.
Key words


1. psychology
2. scientific
3. study
4. mental
5. behaviour
6. environment
7. pattern
8. human being
9. thought
10. feeling
11. action
12. mind
13. dream
14. desire
15. mental illness
16. research
17. psychologist
18. personality
19. habit
20. insight



психология
научный
исследование, изучение
умственный, психический
поведение
окружающая среда, окружение
образец, пример
человек
мысль
чувство
действие
разум, ум
сон, мечта
желание
психическое расстройство
исследование
психолог
личность, индивидуальность
привычка
способность понимать умственные процессы, схватывание сути проблемной ситуации, внезапное нахождение решения (на основе опыта и интуиции)
Text

Psychology is the scientific study of mental processes and behaviour. Psychologists observe and record how people and other animals relate to one another and to the environment. They look for patterns that will help them understand and predict behaviour, and they use scientific methods to test their ideas. Through such studies, psychologists have learned much that can help people fulfill their potential as human beings and increase understanding between individuals, groups, nations, and cultures.

Psychology is a broad field that explores a variety of questions about thoughts, feelings, and actions. Psychologists ask such questions as: "How do we see, hear, smell, taste, and feel? What enables us to learn, think, and remember, and why do we forget? What activities distinguish human beings from other animals? What abilities are we born with, and which must we learn? How much does the mind affect the body, and how does the body affect the mind? For example, can we change our heart rate or temperature just by thinking about doing so? What can our dreams tell us about our needs, wishes, and desires? Why do we like the people we like? What is mental illness?"

The research findings of psychologists have greatly increased our understanding of why people behave as they do. For example, psychologists have discovered much about how personality develops and how to promote healthy development. They have some knowledge of how to help people change bad habits and how to help students learn. They understand some of the conditions that can make workers more productive. A great deal remains to be discovered. Nevertheless, insights provided by psychology can help people function better as individuals, friends, family members, and workers.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following questions on the text.

1. What is psychology?

2. What do psychologists do?

3. What does psychology explore?

4. What kind of questions do psychologists ask?

5. Why do we need psychological research?

6. How can psychology help us?
^ II. Answer the following questions expressing your own opinion.

1. Why do you want to become a professional psychologist?

2. What is your favourite topic in psychology?

3. When do you think a person should consult a psychologist?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Understand and predict behaviour, to fulfill one’s potential, psychology is a broad field, how personality develops, bad habits, conditions that can make workers more productive.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Давать возможность учить, думать и запоминать, какие виды деятельности отличают человека от животного?, с какими способностями мы рождаемся, а какие приобретаем?, как разум влияет на тело, и как тело влияет на разум?, почему мы любим именно тех людей, которых мы любим, расширять понимание.
^ V. Complete the sentences.

1. Psychology is the scientific study of …

2. Psychology is a broad field that explores …

3. The research findings of psychologists have greatly increased …

4. Insights provided by psychology can help people …
^ VI. Make up sentences from the following words and word combinations.

1. we, can, so, about, just, by, heart , or, rate, temperature, change, thinking, doing, our?

2. illness, is, what, mental?

3. see, we, do, smell, how, feel, and?
VII. Match the world with its definition.


1. insight

A) any of various disorders in which a person's thoughts, emotions, or behaviour are so abnormal as to cause suffering to himself, herself, or other people

2. psychology

B) the capacity for understanding one's own or another's mental processes

3. behavior

C) the scientific study of all forms of human and animal behaviour, sometimes concerned with the methods through which behaviour can be modified

4. mental illness

D) a learned behavioral response that has become associated with a particular situation, esp. one frequently repeated


VIII. Give the summary of the text.
^ IX. Read the text and then translate it in writing.

Solitude is Sometimes the Best Society

Occasional solitude is absolutely necessary for a developing mind. To have time to think is rare in the world today, and time must be made. To continue living working without moments of solitude is like expecting a machine to work indef­initely without oil.

Solitude is the best society for artists. The creation of any form of beauty depends upon the state of a man's mind, whether the person writes something or paints something.

But few people like being alone for a long time. The close society of acquain­tances and friends, doing useless things to pass the time. People are afraid of having time to think, so they go to the cinema, the television set, or a football match, because they can think of nothing better to do. Creative work is fast disappearing; instead, we'll have a generation of watchers and thought will be left to the poets and scientists.

Some people wouldn't know what to do being alone at times. Finding other people's company preferable to their own, they begin to fell unhappy and grow introspective. Self - analysis can be carried too far by some; others lose the art of conversation, and an ability to give and take - and so run indefinitely without oil...

But to the rest of us solitude brings new worlds. When we think and feel, unwatched by man, ideas and feelings come to us, and we get new strength instead of becoming lost in a hurring world. Ideas and knowledge of oneself that come from peace are the best things in life; these come only from solitude -occasional solitude.

^ Unit 4

Psychology As a Science
Цель – формирование представлений студентов о психологии как науке, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.
Key words

1. human being

человек

2. inner

внутренний

3. personality

личность

4. diverse

разнообразный

5. exploration

исследование

6. phenomenon

явление, феномен

7. conscious

сознательный

8. origin

происхождение

9. manifestation

проявление

10. affect

оказывать влияние, воздействовать на кого-либо, что-либо


Text

Psychology is one of the most rapidly developing social science, touching almost every aspect of our lives. It has as its principal focus the individual human being, with special emphasis on the inner life, the personality, the pat­terns of thought, consciousness and behaviour of the person. Society which has become more complex is turning more and more to psychology to answer some of the serious human problems of our day and age. The public is already convinced of the benefits of using psychological findings in solving such di­verse problems as mental illness, human factors in space exploration, as well as in helping persons become more self-actualizing.

As a branch of science it has been defined in various ways, according to the particular method of approach adopted or field of study proposed by the indi­vidual psychologist. But a comprehensive definition, which would include all varieties, so far as they can be rightly said to represent aspects of the original and historical meaning of the word, would run in some such way as this. Psy­chology is the branch of biological science which studies the phenomena of conscious life and behaviour, in their origin, development, and manifestation, and employing such methods as are available and applicable to the particular field of study or particular problem with which the individual scientist is en­gaged.

The main task of psychology as it developed in our country is materialistic investigation of the highest forms of human psychic (mental) activity, of their evolution in the process of socio-historical development, and of the fundamen­tal laws of their operation.

Because psychology affects so many aspects of our lives it is important, even for those who do not intend to specialize in the field, to know something about its basic facts and research methods.
EXERCISES

^ I. Answer the following questions on the text.

  1. What does psychology have as its principal focus?

  2. Why is society turning more and more to psychology?

  1. Why is the public already convinced of the benefits of using psychological findings?

  1. What does psychology study?

  2. What is the main task of psychology in our country?

  1. Why do people have to know about psychological basic facts and research methods?


^ II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion (no less that 10 sentences).

What science do you consider the most important?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Rapidly developing science; special emphasis on the inner life; conscious­ness and behaviour of the person; benefits of using psychological findings; diverse problems; self-actualizing; method of approach; phenomena of con­scious life; materialistic investigation; research methods.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text

Касаться почти всех аспектов нашей жизни; особый акцент на внутренней жизни; особенности мышления; сознание и поведение; использование результатов психологических исследований; общепринятое определение; изучать явления сознательной жизни; доступные и применимые методы; специфическая проблема; отдельная область изучения; высшие формы психической (мыслительной) деятельности; эволюция в процессе социально-исторического развития.
^ V. Complete the sentences.

1. Psychology is one of the most... .

2. It has as its principal focus... .

3. The public is already convinced of the benefits....

4. Psychology is a branch of....

5. The main task of psychology...
VI. Make up sentences from the following words and word combinations.

  1. Almost every aspect of our lives; psychology, touches.

  2. Is turning more and more to psychology; society; some of the serious human problems; to answer.

  3. Is already convinced of; the public; using psychological findings; the benefits of.

Various ways; as a branch of science; the particular method of approach; psychology; or field of study; has been defined in.

  1. Biological science; studies; behaviour; psychology; the branch of; is; which; the phenomena of conscious life.

  2. Materialistic investigation of; the main task of; is; in our country; psychology; highest forms of human psychic.


^ VII. Give the summary of the text.
VIII. The text below is concerned with the application of psychology in children's education. Read the text and identify the topic.
An understanding of educational psychology.

Purpose of educational psychology.

Methods of educational psychology.
...An understanding of educational psychology will put the teacher in a better position to decide what can be dome and how. What will not work and why. It will give him a clearer perspective of what constitutes realistic goals for the child in his present state of development and how he can be helped to achieve these goals. It should enable the teacher to do a more effective job of gearing the curriculum to the needs, goals, and purposes of individual children in his class, and to avoid much of the difficulty experienced by teachers who operate on the premise that children should adapt their needs and goals to the curriculum set by the teacher. In short, an understanding of educational psy­chology should increase the effectiveness with which the teacher helps the child make maximum progress toward the realization of his capacities.

...The beginning teacher is often tempted to use threats of detention, fail­ing grades, and other forms of punishment instead of something more con­structive from a long-term point of view. Furthermore, there are timed when the best procedure for a given situation is not clear. As a result, the new teacher is often so much at a loss he is willing to grasp at any method regardless of its effectiveness.

Actually, psychology is better at telling what not to do than it is at telling what to do. Laymen are often annoyed at what they consider the psychologists evasiveness when he answers "It depends" to their questions as to what should be done about a given child or what is the most opportunite age to introduce a certain academic task. Educational psychology does not provide the teacher with a computer to advise him when the child is ripe for a given activity, it can only alert him to the principles on the basis of which sound decisions can be made.

^ Unit 5

Conceptual Approaches to Psychology
Цель – формирование представлений студентов о концептуальных подходах к изучению психологии, использование знания иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности и профессиональной коммуникации.
^ Key words

concern

иметь отношение

be concerned with

интересоваться чем-либо

in terms of

в терминах, на языке


muscle

мышца, мускул

stimulus (pi. stimuli)

стимул, раздражитель

approach

подход

specify

определять, обусловливать

sole

единственный

environment

окружающая среда

bring up

воспитывать

psychoanalysis

психоанализ

conclude

делать вывод

unconscious

подсознательный, бессознательный

hide

прятать

creativity

творчество

self-actualization

самоактуализация

assert

утверждать

reflection

отражение

refute

опровергать


Text

Psychologists are concerned with a wide variety of problems. Basically, we are interested in finding out "Why people act as they do?" Any action a person takes can be explained from several different points of view.

Suppose, for example, you walk across the street. This act can be described in terms of the firing of the nerves that activate the muscles that more the legs that transport you across the street. It can also be described without reference to anything within body; the green light is a stimulus to which you respond by crossing the street. Or your action might be explained in terms of its ultimate purpose; you plan to visit a friend and crossing the street is one of many acts involved in carrying out the plan.

Just as there are different ways of describing any act of behaviour, there are also different approaches to psychology.

One approach attempts to relate the actions of human beings to events taking place inside the body, particularly within the brain and nervous system. This approach specifies the neurobiological processes that underlie behaviour and mental events.

The view that behaviour is the sole subject matter of psychology was first advanced by the American psychologist John B. Watson in the early 1900s. He believed that, although man may be at times an active agent in his own development and behaviour, he is still basically what his environment makes him. Therefore, the basic problem is to find out how man behaves or responds as a result of changes or improvements in the environment or stimuli. Perhaps the spirit of behaviorism is best seen in Watson's belief that he could take any healthy infant at random and, given his own specified world to bring him up in, bring him up to be anything he wished - doctor, prince, lawyer, criminal, and so forth.

Another approach to the study of man is psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud. Freud concluded that personality and our degrees of mental health depend on the actions of three major forces: the id - our unconscious instincts, the ego - our conscious self or intellect - and superego, the conditional reflexes of social rules and internalized values. For Freudists what is hidden is more important and real than what we feel and do.

The humanistic view school is that man becomes what he makes of himself by his own actions and thoughts. It is concerned with topics having little place

in existing theories and systems: e.g. love, creativity, self-actualization, humour, affection and so on. Humanists believe that man is born basically good, and that conscious forces are more important than unconscious forces.

Soviet psychology was inseparably linked with the development of research into psycho-physiology in the works of I. Pavlov, V. Bekhterev, L. Orbeli and others. In refuting the idealistic and mechanistic influences, Soviet scientists asserted in psychology the marxist teaching on activity and its socio-historical foundation, the ideas of Lenin's theory of reflection.

Present-day psychology in our country is a complex and differentiated research system extending throughout general and social psychology, genetic and child psychology, psychosomatic disorders, medical and engineering psychology.
EXERCISES
^ I. Answer the following questions on the text.

  1. What kind of problems are psychologists concerned with?

  2. How can any action of a person be explained?

  3. What are the main approaches to psychology?

  4. What does biological approach specify?

  1. Who firstly advanced the view that behaviour is the sole subject matter of psychology?

  1. What is the essence of behavioristic view on man's behaviour?

  2. What did Freud conclude?

  3. What way does humanistic approach differ from other existing theories?

  4. What was Soviet psychology inseparably linked with?


^ II. Answer the question expressing your own opinion.

What approach to psychology do you consider the best one? Why?
III. Give Russian equivalents of the following.

Conceptual approach; without reference to anything within body; ultimate purpose; basically; act of behaviour; within the brain and nervous system; the sole subject matter of psychology; underlie behaviour and mental events; the spirit of behaviourism; at random; depend on the actions of three major forces; the conditional reflexes of social rules and internalized values; affection; idealis­tic and mechanistic influences; psychosomatic disorders.
^ IV. Find English equivalents in the text.

Психологов интересует широкий круг вопросов; реагировать на стимул; в основном; различные точки зрения; действие может быть описано; без ссылки на что-либо; внутри тела; конечная цель; выполнять план; связывать действия и события; лежать в основе поведения и психических явлений; единственный предмет психологии; найти (обнаружить); точка зрения бихейвиористов; психическое здоровье; внутренние ценности; существующие теории и системы; быть неразрывно связанным с...; ученые утверждают; психосоматические нарушения; социально-историческая основа; ленинская теория отражения.
^ V. Complete the sentences.

1.Psychologists are concerned with... .

2.Any action of a person takes can be explained.-:..

3.Biological approach attempts to relate....

4.The behaviorists think that... .

5.Psychoanalytical approach was founded by... .

6.Freud concluded that....

7.Humanists believe that....

8.Soviet psychology was inseparably linked with....

9.Soviet scientists asserted... .

10. Present-day psychology in our country is... .
^ VI. Make up sentences.

1.A wide variety of problems; are concerned with; psychologists.

2.Any action; from several different points of view; a person; can be explained; takes.

3.Specifies; that; behaviour and mental events; biological; the neurobiological processes; approach; underlie.

4.John B. Watson; the man; his environment; basically; believed; is; that; makes him.

5.Concluded; personality; Freud; our degrees of mental health; that; on the actions of; depend on; three major forces; and. Humanists; man; what; by his own actions; think; that; becomes; he makes of himself; thoughts; and.

6.Linked; Soviet psychology; with the development of; was inseparably; research; psycho-physiology; into.
^ VII. Give the summary of the text.
VIII. Read the passage below, say what is new in it when compared with text "Conceptual Approaches to Psychology".

Psychologists attempt to understand behaviour from the following perspec­tives:

a. biological - the brain and central nervous system;

b. cognitive - thought processes and memory;

с behavioral - effects of environment and reward and punishment;

d. psychoanalytical - unconscious system;

e. humanistic - the attempt to realize one's potential for growth. Psychology is defined as the systematic, scientific study of behaviour, both animal and human. It attempts to explain and predict behaviour.
^ IX. Read the text below to identify the difference contained in some of the existing views on intelligence. Express your own opinion.

Use the following expressions: in my opinion..., as for me..., I can't agree that...
One of the most influential schools of psychology abroad is that Jean Piaget, a most prolific writer. More and more psychologists and educators call him "Mr. Child Psychologist". His theory affirms the development of new cognitive structures in a series of age-related stages. There are: the period of preoccupational thought (2-7 years) characterized by the development of language and concept-development, the period of concrete operations (7-11 years), and the period of formal operations (11-15 years) in which the individual's cognitive structures are most highly developed to apply logic to abstract as well as con­crete thinking.

Though Piaget does believe the role of the environment in developing is strategic, he assumes that the child's intellectual potential is determined biolog­ically. In other words, certain functions must mature and development must reach a certain stage before the school begin teaching knowledge and skills effectively.

According to Vygotsky, the mental development of the human being contin­ues right through his education and rearing as a universal form of assimilating the socio-historical abilities of his time. Vygotsky believed that school learning contributes something qualitatively new to the child's development that it stim­ulates processes of development which would not occur without it. Vygotsky believed that what the child can do with help today, he will be able to do inde­pendently tomorrow. In the matter of the relationship between learning and development Vygotsky differed from other learning theorists in that he believed that development "results" from learning.

Unit 6
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